Ideas on advertising


Positioning: the ties that bind

“The basic approach of positioning,” Al Ries and Jack Trout wrote in Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind (1981), “is not to create something new and different but to manipulate what’s already up there in the mind, to retie the connections that already exist.”


Creativity can delight, even inspire. But does it generate business value?

The short answer is, Yes. That conclusion came through clearly in McKinsey’s analysis of one widely recognized proxy for creativity. To have a quantitative measure that could be used to examine the linkage between creativity and business performance, they developed the Award Creativity Score (ACS), an index based on the prestigious Cannes Lions awards given annually for advertising and marketing excellence.


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The Tech Takeover of Advertising

Both Alphabet and Facebook have carefully worked at crafting their public images. Most people see these companies as forward-looking tech companies that are shaping our future through high-flying initiatives like Google X or Oculus VR. But, despite these other initiatives and some diligent messaging, Alphabet and Facebook are media companies that get their money from one source: advertising. They’re so good at it, in fact, that companies like CBS, Fox, Viacom, TimeWarner, and Disney are now just fighting for scraps.


TV’s Ad Apocalypse Is Getting Closer

Disney’s recent decision to build its own streaming service is smart. It’s also the latest sign that the traditional cable bundle is doomed. Since 2010, the time that Americans under 35 have spent watching television has declined by 50%. As a large chunk of television moves toward an ad-light experience, tens of billions of dollars that used to fit in the nooks between Chuck Lorre comedies and Law & Order reruns will look for new homes.


The art of persuasion

“There are a lot of great technicians in advertising. And unfortunately they talk the best game. They know all the rules. They can tell you that people in an ad will get you greater readership. They can tell you that a sentence should be this short or that long. They can tell you that body copy should be broken up for easier and more inviting reading. They can give you fact after fact. They are the scientists of advertising. But there’s one little rub. Advertising is fundamentally persuasion and persuasion happens to be not a science, but an art.

“It’s that creative spark that I’m so jealous of for our agency and that I am so desperately fearful of losing. I don’t want academicians. I don’t want scientists. I don’t want people who do the right things. I want people who do inspiring things.” – Edward L. Bernays, Image is Everything (founder of the world’s first PR firm, Counsel in Public Relations)


“Call me an aging Boomer sap, but I think this Bernie Sanders ad is just about the best political commercial I’ve ever seen. The song is perfect. The selection of visuals is dead on – the little kid carrying the calf just kills me – and it’s so welcoming and positive that it makes the old Reagan Morning In America ads look like death-metal videos. If all the Sanders campaign does is inject the spirit of this commercial into our money-drenched, dead-assed politics, then it is already far more than merely a worthwhile endeavor.” – Charles P. Pierce, Esquire

Donald Rumsfeld on Hiring

“A’s hire A’s; B’s hire C’s.” – Donald Rumsfeld


Google and Facebook are getting it all

“In the first quarter of 2016, 85 cents of every new dollar spent in online advertising will go to Google or Facebook.” – Morgan Stanley analyst Brian Nowak, The New York Times, April 17, 2016


TBWA Worldwide president Jean-Marie Dru is widely regarded as one of the most influential advertising executives of the past 20 years

It all comes down to winning

“Winning can be complicated but there is also a brutally simple side to winning. Napoleon was once asked which armies were the best. He replied, ‘Those which are victorious.’

“What more is there to say? We may talk about dozens of metrics but at the end of the day it’s obvious: Win or go home.” – Aldo Papone, The Power of the Obvious


“Clarity of language and clarity of thought are inextricably linked.” – George Orwell (Quoted by Kenneth M. Merritt in Advertising Age, May 12, 1986)


The shorter the better

“Be short, be simple, be human.” – Sir Ernest Gowers, An ABC of Plain Words

“Broadly speaking, short words are the best, and the old ones when short are best of all.” – Winston Churchill


The shorter the funnier

“...there seems to be a brutal rule of comedy: The shorter the better. I began to discover that whenever you could cut a speech, a sentence, a phrase or even a couple of words, it makes a greater difference than you would ever expect.” – John Cleese, So, Anyway...(Autobiography 2014)


“It’s always important to remember that some people succeed in spite of their methods and not because of them.”

Bill Reddin


More from the report: “TV has the highest daily reach of all media, and Canadians watch an average of 28 hours of TV a week (18 hours/week for Canadians aged 18-34). TV’s ability to effectively reach light and non-buyers is unparalleled.”

The 80:20 rule is a myth

“There are lots of rules of thumb and heuristics in marketing that turn out not to be true. Everyone talks about the 80:20 rule (that 80% of sales come from 20% of customers). But in almost every category, that bottom 80% you’re meant to ignore are actually responsible for half of a brand’s sales.

“People are more detached from brands than you think. Consumers buy them less frequently than brands assume, brands are more dependent on light buyers than they think, and people’s interaction with communication is also less than we think.” – Tom Morton, Marketing Magazine, May 9, 2014


“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” – Maya Angelou


Successful advertising is all about respect

“Respect those to whom you write. Any copywriter who lacks respect for the great mass of people – the working class – has never lived among them. They’re sharp, fast, funny. They have wide-ranging interests. They’re not at all how most middle-class and upper-class people see them. The irony of it is that middle-class and upper-class people are sheltered – often removed from the realities.” – Tim Delaney, Legas-Delaney Advertising


“Producing high quality content is core to any marketing process.” – Venture capitalist Doug Pepper, The New York Times, January 23, 2014


“I got a great gimmick. Let’s tell the truth.” – Nathan Orbach (to Bill Bernbach)


Why narrow-minded companies succeed

“When you narrow your company’s focus, two things happen, both of which are good. (1) You become more efficient at what your company is doing. (2) You strengthen your brand because it now has a better chance of standing for something.” – Al Ries, Advertising Age, December 4, 2013


“What you say is important; how you say it is more important still.”
– Cicero

Elmore Leonard’s 10-Step Program to Good Writing
1. Never open a book with weather.
2. Avoid prologues.
3. Never use a verb other than “said” to carry dialogue.
4. Never use an adverb to modify the verb “said”…
5. Keep your exclamation points under control.
6. Never use the words “suddenly” or “all hell broke loose.”
7. Use regional dialect, patois, sparingly.
8. Avoid detailed descriptions of characters.
9. Don’t go into great detail describing places and things.
10. Try to leave out the part that readers tend to skip.
Elmore Leonard, The New York Times, July 16, 2001


Turfing out the competition

“There’s a debate raging in my town over whether or not to replace the existing planted-grass school football field with what used to be known as Astroturf. One side has already won a crucial victory: the local paper calls the new alternative, ‘turf.’

“Turf is what we call a racetrack, or half a fancy dinner (surf and...). Turf is short and punchy and feels organic. If they had called it ‘plastic’ or ‘fake grass’ or ‘artificial turf,’ every conversation would feel different before we even started.” – Seth Godin, Seth’s Blog, August 4, 2013


“Proper words in proper order make the true definition of style.”
– Jonathan Swift


Bernays on engineering public opinion

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.

We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.

Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet.” – Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda


Albert Lasker’s Lord & Thomas advertising agency transformed the industry more than a century ago

Three words that changed advertising forever: “Salesmanship in Print”

The young Albert Lasker, often referred to as “the father of modern advertising,” knew that advertising worked but he wasn’t really sure exactly what advertising was. Lasker found the answer he was looking for in 1904 when copywriter John E. Kennedy (1864–1928), a former member of the Canadian Mounted Police, told him advertising was “Salesmanship in Print.” Kennedy explained that advertising must give readers reasons why the product being advertised was a better buy than competing products or alternative uses of their limited budget. Lasker was so impressed he created the first systematically trained copywriting staff in America at his agency (Lord & Thomas) based on Kennedy’s philosophy. “We saw more clearly than ever,” he said, “that basically it is copy that makes advertising pay.”


The problem with advertising today

“The problem with advertising today is not in the advertisements themselves. For the most part, the ads are faithful to the client’s marketing strategy. The problem is in the marketing strategy.” – Al Ries, Advertising Age, November 6, 2013


“Great work costs less, ultimately, than crap work.” – David Droga, Marketing Magazine, January 12, 2012


“Work hard. There is no shortcut.” – Alfred P. Sloan, builder of GM


Bernbach on the power of human nature

“Nothing is so powerful as an insight into human nature...what compulsions drive a man, what instincts dominate his action. If you know these things about a man you can touch him at the core of his being.” – Bill Bernbach, legendary adman and founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach


Ogilvy on advertising

“I do not regard advertising as entertainment or an art form, but as a medium of information. When I write an advertisement, I don’t want you to tell me that you find it ‘creative.’ I want you to find it so interesting that you buy the product. When Aeschines spoke, they said, ‘How well he speaks.’ But when Demosthenes spoke, they said, ‘Let us march against Philip.’” – David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising


Google’s Varian on what’s behind today’s burst of innovation

Google chief economist Hal Varian (Photo: Robyn Twomey/Redux)

“The great thing about the current period is that component parts are all bits. That means you never run out of them. You can reproduce them, you can duplicate them, you can spread them around the world, and you can have thousands and tens of thousands of innovators combining or recombining the same component parts to create new innovation. So there’s no shortage. There are no inventory delays. It’s a situation where the components are available for everyone, and so we get this tremendous burst of innovation that we’re seeing.”– Dr. Hal Varian, Google chief economist, McKinsey Quarterly, January 2009


A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention

Economist and Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon

“In an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.” – Economist and Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon (1916–2001)


“The benefit of free is that you get 100 percent of the market.” – Google CEO Eric Schmidt in GOOGLED: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta


The power of words

“They sing. They hurt. They teach. They sanctify. They were man’s first, immeasurable feat of magic. They liberated us from ignorance and our barbarous past. For without these marvelous scribbles, which build letters into words, words into sentences, sentences into systems and sciences and creeds, man would be forever confined to the self-isolated prison of the cuttlefish or the chimpanzee.

“We live by words: LOVE, TRUTH, GOD. We fight for words: FREEDOM, GLORY, HONOR. They bestow the priceless gift of articulacy on our minds and hearts – from Mama to infinity. And those who truly shape our destiny, the giants who teach us, inspire us, lead us to deeds of immortality are those who use words with clarity, grandeur and passion: Socrates, Jesus, Luther, Lincoln, Churchill. Americans, caught between affluence and anxiety, may give thanks for the endless riches in the kingdom of print.” – Leo Rosten, ad for Good Housekeeping magazine


Dr. Luntz convinced the Bush Administration to reframe “global warming” as “climate change” since climate change sounded less severe

It’s not what you say, it’s what people hear...is the most important single line I have ever written.” – Frank Luntz, Republican strategist and communications specialist in The New York Times Magazine, May 24, 2009


Bernbach on what creative is...and is not

“Merely to let your imagination run riot, to dream unrelated dreams, to indulge in graphic acrobatics and verbal gymnastics is not being creative. The creative person has harnessed his imagination. He has disciplined it so that every thought, every idea, every line he draws, every light and shadow in every photograph he takes, makes more vivid, more believable, more persuasive the original theme or product advantage he has decided he must convey.” – Bill Bernbach (quoted by Al Ries in Advertising Age, July 2, 2009)


“Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson


Big Brother’s Writing Tips
• Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
• Never use a long word where a short one will do.
• If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
• Never use the passive where you can use the active.
• Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
• Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
– George Orwell, author of 1984


“Any fool can make soap. It takes a clever man to sell it.”
– British soap maker Thomas J. Barratt, 1865


So you think you know what a good ad is? Think again!

Most people believe that they know a good ad when they see one. The truth is almost no one does. Research has proven that ads, which impact in the marketplace, usually violate long-held notions of advertising brilliance. This fact was vividly demonstrated several years ago when a group of advertising people decided to identify the best-read ads of the previous year. To accomplish their goal, they talked with thousands of people about literally thousands of ads of all kinds. Then they fed their data into a computer. The results produced a shock wave on Madison Avenue, for they proved without question that ads, which impact on the public, frequently do not measure up to popular standards of creative brilliance. Indeed, by all the standards of the day, the vast majority were quite “plain Jane.” They weren’t the ones usually entered in ad-club competitions.

Careful analysis soon revealed the reason why the ads had received such good readership. They had provided information; they had not sought to be entertaining. In ad after ad, copy and illustration had functioned as a perfect team in spelling out benefits that prospects could instantly grasp and believe. In commenting on the results, one of the survey’s sponsors said that almost all of the winning ads concentrated on selling the product’s benefits, not the talents of the copywriter and art director. He said that by emphasizing how, what, why, where and when they had made the products – not the advertisements – interesting. – from Mature Advertising by Robert B. Parker


“The difference between a successful person and others is not a lack of strength, not a lack of knowledge but rather in a lack of will.” – Vince Lombardi


Concept Closure...and why it works so well

Closure, as defined in the advertising textbooks, is the tendency of people to complete an incomplete statement. I believe closure is the basis of one of the most powerful tools available to the creative man, and yet so few of us consciously use it.

Remember “You can take Salem out of the country but...?” Almost everybody mentally filled in the rest “...you can’t take the country out of Salem.” That’s as far as the textbooks go on closure. They see it as an interruptive word device that gets attention and remembrance. But it can go further than that. It can be taken to what I call Concept Closure, and this is where the power is.

Symbolism, too, is built on Concept Closure. You see an American flag and, if you are patriotic, it triggers all sorts of visuals from the flag-raising at Iwo to the Saint Paddy’s Day parade up Fifth Avenue.

The eagle, the mountain, the tiger – the images are myriad. You don’t have to belabor an issue with details. People have all the details stored away in their memory banks waiting to spring to life.

Advertising people are not in the business of inculcating memories. That is the job of art and literature and the richness of this life experience. We merely open the door and let a few of them out from time to time.

The great ones knew it. Claude Hopkins knew it, or sensed it anyway, when he wrote of the Hoover vacuum cleaner, “It beats as it sweeps and cleans.” People had memories of beating rugs and of sweeping them to get them clean. They knew what a tough job it was.

And the old-timer who first wrote of “apple pie like mother used to make” knew what he was doing too.

Concept Closure is something that great salesmen have always known in their bones. They know you don’t really sell anybody anything. You just help them to sell themselves. – from Advertising Age, January 12, 1987


“If you are going to use two words – if you are going to fasten them in the minds of the readers – then they must be alliterative.” – Albert Lasker


Seth Godin on Cultural Wisdom
Seth Godin’s blog is one of the most widely read on the internet today

It’s very easy to underrate the value of cultural wisdom, otherwise known as sophistication.

Walk into a doctor’s office and the paneling is wrong, the carpeting is wrong and it feels dated. Instant lack of trust.

Meet a salesperson in your office. She doesn’t shake hands, she’s fumbling with an old Filofax, she mispronounces Steve Jobs’ name and doesn’t make eye contact.

Visit a website for a vendor and it looks like one of those long-letter opportunity seeker type sites.

In each case, the reason you wrote someone off had nothing to do with their product and everything to do with their lack of cultural wisdom.

We place a high value on sophistication, because we’ve been trained to seek it out as a cue for what lies ahead. We figure that if someone is too clueless to understand our norms, they probably don’t understand how to make us a product or service that we’ll like.

This is even more interesting because different cultures have different norms, so there isn’t one right answer. It’s an ever changing, complex task. Cultural wisdom is important precisely because it’s difficult.

And yet...

Who’s in charge of cultural norms at your organization? Does someone hire or train or review to make sure you and your people are getting it right? At Vogue magazine, of course, that’s all they do. If they lost it, even for a minute, they’d be toast.

It’s funny that we assume that all sorts of complex but ultimately unimportant elements need experts and committees and review, but the most important element of marketing – demonstrating cultural wisdom – shouldn’t even be discussed. – Seth’s Blog, September 25, 2009


“To do great work, two things are required: a definite plan and not quite enough time.”LEADERSHIP...with a human touch


“Image is everything.”

– Edward L. Bernays, the founder of modern public relations and double-nephew of Sigmund Freud


A man of his words

When Raymond Rubicam was 50, his second wife bore him a son. One of his partners sent him a telegram, which combined his famous headlines for Steinway and Squibb: “Glad to hear that the instrument of the immortals still contains the priceless ingredient.” – David Ogilvy in Advertising Age, 1984


“It is possible to “make” your luck by always being prepared.” – Michael Korda


Principle and guidelines for headlines
PRINCIPLE:
An effective headline is good news that registers instantly.
GUIDELINES:
1. A good headline makes a clearly stated promise of a well-defined benefit.
2. Readers are turned off by headlines that call for mental effort.
3. Good headlines avoid adblah.
4. Most good headlines spring out of the product itself.
5. Headlines that play games usually turn readers off.
6. Avoid trick typography when setting the headline.
7. Don’t set the headline on an angle.
8. Don’t bury the headline in the text of the ad.
9. Don’t let the headline brag about the product.
10. Most good headlines are set in black type.
11. Most hard-selling headlines mention the product or service.
12. Breaking headlines into two or more parts can be very effective.
13. Think twice before running an ad without a headline.
14. If a headline is good, it can be short or long.
15. Don’t set a long headline in capital letters.
– from Mature Advertising by Robert B. Parker


“You can’t research a big idea. The only ideas that truly research well are mediocre ideas. In research, great ideas are always suspect.”George Lois, eye magazine


Common mistakes advertisers should avoid
Here are some of the common mistakes advertisers make when promoting their products and services:

Trying to communicate with consumers in the aggregate rather than as individuals. Advertisers have to remember that a mass audience is composed of people and that each one has to be made to feel that the message is directed at him or her personally.

Making the consumer work too hard to get the message. People won’t take the time to make sense of overly clever language and cluttered visuals. Good advertising is simple and direct.

Failing to realize that advertising has to sell. We’ve all seen too many ads and commercials that are entertaining and creative – but fail to get a sales message across.

Burying the sales message. Some advertisers fail to put their consumer benefit or product advantage up front where the right audience can relate to it. When this happens, logical prospects bypass the ad because they don’t recognize that it’s meant for them.

Failing to understand when to emphasize product advantages and when to stress consumer benefits. In general, play up the advantages of your product when the consumer is actively seeking a product or service of your type. Example: The consumer has decided to take a computer course and is looking for the best school.

Stress how the consumer will benefit from your product when he or she has to be convinced of the need for your type of product or service. Example: The consumer has to be convinced that taking a computer course will open up a profitable and rewarding career. – Encoders, Volume 9, Number 4, February 1990


“People forget how fast you did a job – but they remember how well you did it.” – Howard W. Newton


They laughed when he sat down at the piano…but not for long
John Caples, author, teacher and advertising legend, died this year (1990) at the age of 90.

Caples was one of the heroes of the trade, admired for his skill and loved for his deeply human concern for advertising as a genuine help to ordinary people.

Sixty-five years ago, Caples created the classic mail-order ad, “They laughed when I sat down at the piano...” His book, Tested Advertising Methods, expounded the theory of advertising as the art of delivering, “a believable promise to the right audience.” His professional influence owed much to the simplicity, logic and precision, which were the hallmarks of his copy.

“My earliest ambition,” he wrote in 1975, “was to make enough money so I could retire at 40. . . . Now that I am in my 70s, I never want to retire. The secret of happiness is enjoyable work, plus helping others.” – Advertising Age, June 25, 1990


“A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds.” – Sir Francis Bacon


The last word on brands
“Play the word association game by product category, and there’s always one brand in that category that springs to mind...If a brand doesn’t own a word that stands right at the heart of what its category stands for in the hearts and minds of the consumer, you’re looking at a brand in trouble, now or later.” – Barry Day, Vice-Chairman and Director of National Advertising Developments, Lintas Worldwide


“It’s not where you are. It’s where you are headed that matters.” – Joey Smallwood


Persistence wins the day
Press on.
Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence.
Talent will not. Nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent.
Genius will not. Unrewarded genius is almost a proverb.
Education will not. The world is full of educated derelicts.
Persistence and determination alone are impotent.
– Ad for McDonald’s (recruitment)


“The secret of success is constancy to purpose.” – Benjamin Disraeli


Bartle Bogle Hegarty founder, Sir John Hegarty: “We don’t sell, we make people want to buy.”

Selling versus buying
“We don’t sell, we make people want to buy.” According to British advertising doyen Sir John Hegarty, “That’s not simply a slogan. It’s a core value.” Creative advertisers realize that the old-style selling techniques no longer work. Today’s consumers simply won’t take “flogging.”

“If you can’t make them want to buy your product or your service,” says Hegarty, “you certainly won’t succeed by hammering at them.” In a world where people are better educated, more sophisticated, more discerning, respect for the consumer’s intelligence is essential for “the long-term relationship between manufacturer and consumer” that keeps a company in business over the long term. – British advertising guru Sir John Hegarty in The Wall Street Journal Europe


“Difficulties do not crush men, they make them.” – Arthur Meighen


Millions of words and only six emotions
“The intellectual part of the human mind can spin delightful or frightening stories, can compare features and benefits, can create narratives that compel us to take action. But all of these words are merely costumes for the six emotions built deep in our primordial soup: Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.

“Being angry at a driver who cuts you off in traffic is chemically similar to being angry to a relative you cuts you out of his will. We tell ourselves different stories (the traffic story will probably not last nearly as long in the echoes of our consciousness as the bitterness of the bequest story, for example), but still, there are only six buttons being pressed.

“Knowing that there are only a few keys on the keyboard doesn't make it easier to write a pop hit or a great novel, but it's a start. In the case of someone with an idea to spread or a product to sell, knowing that you've only got six buttons might help focus your energy.” – Seth Godin, Seth’s Blog, July 27, 2013


Orange is the color of successful branding
“An orange...is an orange...is an orange. Unless of course that orange happens to be a Sunkist. Indeed, a Sunkist orange is considered something quite special. And this is due, in great part, to our consistent commitment since the day we began advertising in 1908, to creating a brand image. Today, after nearly a century of advertising, we have a name eighty per cent of consumers know and trust.” – Russel L. Hanlin, President and CEO, Sunkist Growers Inc. (about 1990)


“The difference between ordinary and extraordinary is that little extra.” – Anonymous


Success was measured in seconds even before the internet
“Research shows that we start to make up our minds about other people within the first seven seconds of meeting them.” – Roger Ailes, Media Adviser to US presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush

“The first five seconds make or break a sale.” – Burton Manning, President, J. Walter Thompson

“Copywriters estimate that they have only four seconds to get a consumer’s attention...” – TIME Magazine, November 26, 1990


The value of a lower education
“I know nothing of value which an advertising man can be taught in college. I know of many things taught there which he will need to unlearn before he can steer any practical course.” – Claude Hopkins from My Life in Advertising (1927)


Required reading times seven
“Nobody should be allowed to have anything to do with advertising until he has read Scientific Advertising (by Claude Hopkins) seven times. It has changed my life.” – David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising


“Publicity makes all history mythical, but to do so effectively it needs a language with historical dimensions.”
–John Berger, Ways of Seeing


Simple-minded genius: four steps to creative thinking
How do they think of it? Just when our worst day-to-day peeve seems hopeless, some genius creates a simple, obvious gadget or service that saves us. But why didn’t we invent a portable footrest for short folks, or provide errand-runners to wait in lines for busy people? What have these creative types got that we haven’t got?

Nothing, says Prof. Sam Glucksberg of Princeton. All human beings possess the power of creative thinking. Successful inventors train their creativity according to four basic principles anyone can learn:
1. Fill a need.
2. Exploit a frustration.
3. Use your know-how.
4. Think small.

Conrad Hubert saw battery-powered light bulbs used for decoration, put the batteries and bulb in a tube – and gave us the flashlight for emergencies. Chester Greenwood kept freezing his ears in winter, so he attached fur cups to the ends of a wire – and made a fortune in earmuffs. Kaadyah Schatten, an amateur chemist, developed a cleaning process for factory ceilings – her Toronto company now sells franchises worldwide. Little things cause big problems. Other little things solve them, and make big dollars. Adhesive bandages, safety pins, paper cups, filled a need and made a fortune for their inventors. – Reader’s Digest, July 1990


“A quitter never wins...and a winner never quits.” – Anonymous


The 10 most common communications problems
Are you launched on your first public speaking assignment for your company? Communications expert Roger Ailes has laid out ten markers to help you chart your course without sinking your speech. Remember these “ten most common communications problems.”
1. Lack of initial rapport with listeners
2. Stiffness or woodenness in use of body
3. Presentation of material is intellectually oriented, forgetting to involve the audience emotionally
4. Speaker seems uncomfortable because of fear of failure
5. Poor use of eye contact and facial expression
6. Lack of humor
7. Speech direction and intent unclear due to improper preparation
8. Inability to use silence for impact
9. Lack of energy, causing inappropriate pitch pattern, speech rate and volume
10. Use of boring language and a lack of interesting material
– Roger Ailes, You Are The Message


How to get prospects involved
Getting your audience absorbed in your advertising message is vital – but difficult to do. The trick is to get a person so caught up in the ad or commercial that he or she becomes actively involved. Some suggestions:
• Use print headlines that imply a benefit or product advantage but require reading the copy to get the message. Use key words, such as how, why, which, where, advice, etc.
• How to Retire Before You’re 50
• Why It’s Now Possible to Make Money in Commodities
• Which of These Books Will Help You Get Ahead?
• Use a provocative opening statement or grabber with an implied benefit, if possible, in the first few seconds of a radio or TV spot.
• For radio, consider a stimulating question, a direct statement to the prospect, a humorous opening that relates to the message, music that appeals to the audience and sets a tone, a novel situation.
• For TV, open with a conflict that will get your audience’s attention, a problem or need that viewers can relate to, a newsworthy item, a dramatic visual.
• Consider a quiz ad. People love to test their knowledge and will become actively involved in a quiz. This approach also establishes your organization as the expert with the answers.
• Use editorial-style ads. Research shows that ads that look like articles get higher readership than conventional-style ads.
Encoders Volume 9, Number 4


“I don’t need to be inspired. I just have to be hired.” – Sammy Cahn


If it makes them feel good, do it
Surveys of the advertising industry show that today’s consumers buy the whole product, not the neat feature or new improvement advertisers once liked to hammer at them. The so-called unique selling proposition just doesn’t sell any more.

Most agencies now concentrate on “feel-good” advertising with an “emotional selling proposition.” Ideally, this “emotional branding” of a product creates an intangible, yet irresistible, appeal – a soft sell that nets hard-cash returns.

Japanese and European agencies often get high marks for subtlety. But North America has some spectacular emotional branding successes. Research has shown that American consumers associate the name of McDonald’s with many things, including cleanliness and even the Ronald McDonald homes for sick children, before they even think about food. Rivals calling attention to their burgers apparently have missed the point. It’s the “good time,” not the “great taste,” that keeps the consumers coming back. – The Economist, June 9, 1990


“Success is a marathon not a sprint.”Executive Speechwriter


“Success in retail today and tomorrow will be a direct result of how well the chain has managed to live up to the premise that the store is a brand.”
– Morris Saffer, president, Saffer Advertising


A brand by definition
The Dictionary of Business and Management defines a brand as a name, sign or symbol used to identify items or services of the seller and to differentiate them from goods of competitors. While signs and symbols are part of what a brand is, this is still a very incomplete definition.


A brand with promise
Walter Landor, one of the greats of the advertising industry, said, “Simply put, a brand is a promise. By identifying and authenticating a product or service it delivers a pledge of satisfaction and quality.” The late Mr. Landor helped create and develop some of the world’s most recognized brands and corporate identities, including Coca-Cola, Levi’s, Kellogg’s, GE, 3M, Miller Lite and Bank of America.


Thinking inside the box about brands
In his book, Building Strong Brands, David Aaker, emeritus professor of marketing at Stanford University, suggests that the brand is a “mental box” and defines brand equity as a set of assets (or liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service.


A brand by any other name would smell like feet
It’s important to remember that a “brand” and a “name” are not necessarily the same thing. In a 1997 McKinsey Quarterly article entitled “If Nike can ‘just do it,’ why can’t we?” that point is brought home very nicely:

“Many companies think they have a brand when what they actually have is name recognition. It might be recognition of the name that hangs over the company door, the name on a product, or the name that describes a service. Imagine you are driving down the main street of any small town. You spot “Cosmopolitan Clothes.” If you travel down the street often, you will become aware of Cosmopolitan and recall that the store sells clothes. It may even advertise locally and run promotions. But does Cosmopolitan have a brand? No. It merely has a name that consumers associate with its contents.

“A name becomes a brand when consumers associate it with a set of tangible or intangible benefits that they obtain from the product or service. As this association grows stronger, consumers’ loyalty and willingness to pay a price premium increase. Hence, there is equity in the brand name. A brand without equity is not a brand.”


How Nike created a power brand
There was a time when sneakers were just sneakers: cheap, all-purpose canvas shoes. The only big decision a buyer had to make was whether to go for high tops or low tops. Then manufacturers such as Adidas, New Balance, Nike, Puma, and Reebok started making shoes mainly for running, and followed them with whole ranges of single-purpose sneakers: sneakers for basketball, for tennis, and so on. The trend caught on with consumers, who began buying different pairs for different occasions.

Nike raced ahead of the pack by exploiting its brand power to move from athletics footwear into athletics clothing, turning itself into a symbol of fitness and well-being. It then went several steps further, positioning itself as an athletic lifestyle company which, by using celebrities such as the basketball star Michael Jordan and the golfer Tiger Woods to endorse its goods, enabled customers to identify with the lives of their sporting heroes. Today, the company offers innovative and stylish products, backed by marketing that combines traditional advertising with imaginative schemes to build basketball courts in inner cities and donate free Nike gear to high schools.

At the same time, Nike has leveraged its brand by means of investments in retailing (the launch of NikeTown stores) and sports (the purchase of a Brazilian soccer team). With each step, the company has invested to get closer to customers while maintaining its market share and premium prices. As a result, it has built a market presence beyond anything seen before, generating a superior financial performance for itself and its investors.

Nike created what we might call a power brand. Other companies are enjoying similar results from their brand-building efforts….Power brands generate enormous profits; they also expand future strategic opportunities. – McKinsey Quarterly, 1997


“Winners expect to win in advance. Life is a self-fulfilling prophecy.” – Anonymous


360 degrees and no separation
“Brands must be communicated in a 360-degree manner. Every point of contact will have to reflect the brand whether it’s the online showroom or the real showroom. Whether it’s the telephone service center, or the digital search service. From sponsorships to content generation – the only way a brand will survive in the complexity that’s coming is to make sure that everything that touches the consumer is in touch with the brand. For this reason, integrated brand-driven campaigns will be the norm and not the exception. Brand strategy brought to life in every component of our client’s business will be the business of agencies.

“What convergence means is that the advertising industry will transform itself – in fact, it already has – to be all about delivering the brand.” – Shelly Lazarus, chairman of Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide, 1998 Global Convergence Summit


“I am still learning.” – Michelangelo’s motto


It all begins with a brand
There’s a seismic shift taking place in the world of business. The shift is from selling to buying. This shift is enhanced by, accelerated by, and caused by brands. That old expression “Nothing happens until somebody sells something” is being replaced by today’s slogan, “Nothing happens until somebody brands something.” – Al and Laura Ries, The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding


Thoughts from Disruption: Overturning conventions and shaking up the marketplace by Jean-Marie Dru
Page 73
A brand is an asset. More and more companies are including this intangi­ble on their balance sheets. But as Larry Light, director of the Coalition for Brand Equity, points out, it’s not so much the brand as the relationship between the brand and the customers that matters. “Brand loyalty is the asset,” he says.

Disruption, Page 109
Trust in companies lends credit to the brand. Nowhere is that more true than in Japan, a very institution-oriented country where companies are revered, the Japanese trust them. This explains why a Japanese person al­ways wants to know the name of the firm manufacturing the product he or she is buying.

Disruption, Page 111
“When you buy Tide, you’re buying a product, not Procter & Gamble. When you buy Nike, you’re buying everything that goes with it,” points out Tom Peters. Maybe there is more to see in Tide than simply the prod­uct. To do so would require raising Tide to the level of a company. The Tide Company. You have a clear vision of what the Tide Company could stand for. You have complete trust.

Disruption, Page 114
“Patents expire. Copyrights expire. Only brands can be owned forever. If properly managed, brands can and do live forever,” says Larry Light.

A brand is more than just a company’s asset. It is a reference point for consumers. It transcends geography, adapting to diverse cultures, leading them to share the same expectations.


Disruption, Page 118
The agency should act as the brand’s guardian. The more the brand is stretched, the more carefully it must be managed.

Disruption, Pages 132-133
A brand is powerful only if it takes action. And only if that action moves the brand toward its vision. The public remembers with greater clarity brands that know where they’re going. There is a correlation be­tween the existence of a vision and the awareness of a brand. The vision brings the brand closer to us. Brands with visions don’t address the cus­tomer or the consumer. They address the person behind it. That’s why we like them.

A vision often comes from an individual. An entrepreneur. Whether it’s Steve Jobs or Phil Knight, Lou Gerstner or Sam Walton. They make their companies and the whole world share the values to which they are attached. They do not speak to a mass of consumers. They speak to each and every one of us.

In order to define a vision, the entrepreneur brings together two worlds. His inner world and the world around him. His imagination con­fronts reality; if the two meet, the brand will be strong.


“You will never “find” time for anything. If you want time you must take it.” – Charles Buxton


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